Gül Şahika Gökdemir1, *, Dilek Aygün Keşim2, Mehmet Tahir Gökdemir3, Mukadder Baylan4


1Mardin Artuklu University, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, Mardin - 2Dicle University, Faculty of Medicine, Physical Therapy Department, Diyarbakir - 3Mardin Artuklu University, Faculty of medicine, Emergency Department, Mardin - 4Dicle University, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology department, Diyarbakir


Background: Although first-line biguanide metformin is frequently administered to T2DM patients, the effects of long-term use on muscle are unknown. This study aimed to examine the effect of metformin-treated diabetes on muscle atrophy in experimental diabetic rats. 

Materials and methods: Twenty-one Wistar albino male rats in 3 groups were included in our research. Insulin resistance HOMA-IR, mTOR, and Myostatin levels and gastrocnemius weight were measured.

Results: Myostatin level was significantly higher in the non-medicated diabetes group than in the healthy control group (p<0.001). Moreover, myostatin level was significantly lower in the metformin group (p=0.001). The weight of gastrocnemius was significantly lower in both the metformin-treated and non-metformin-treated diabetic groups compared to the control group (p<0.001 for both groups). Moreover, the gastrocnemius weight was significantly higher in the metformin group than in the non-medicated group (p=0.004). The HOME-IR level had a significantly negative correlation with the mTOR level (R=-0.783; P<0.001) and a positive correlation with the myostatin level (R=0.622; P=0.003).

Conclusion: Our evidence and data support that metformin may be effective in preventing muscle wasting. To conclude, this study showed that metformin has anti-atrophic effects on muscles in diabetes and that metformin can prevent muscle mass loss.


Diabetes mellitus, rat model, HOMA-IR, mTOR, myostatin, gastrocnemius.