Canberk Çınar1, Demet Gür Vural2, Asuman Birinci2
1Sorgun State Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Yozgat, Turkey - 2Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine, Medical Microbiology Department, Samsun, Turkey
Introduction: Interleukin-18 is produced in the early stages of viral infections and is crucial for host defense. Interferon Gamma Induced Protein 10kDa is a molecule associated with thrombosis in many studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the levels of these two molecules, which are thought to be biomarkers in the evaluation of the severity of COVID-19 disease, in clinically different patient groups and to see their relationship with other inflammatory markers.
Materials and method: This study was conducted at Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between 01.04.2021 and 01.09.2021 with 60 patients with positive Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction test and 30 healthy volunteers. Patients were divided into groups according to the definitions in the “Coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis and treatment guideline” according to their clinical appearance. Interleukin-18 and Interferon Gamma Induced Protein 10kDa levels in blood samples taken from patients were studied by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay method.
Results: Interleukin-18 and Interferon Gamma Induced Protein 10kDa levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with mild to moderate pneumonia than in patients with severe pneumonia. The Interferon Gamma Induced Protein 10kDa level did not differ significantly between the mild-moderate patient group and the control group. No correlation was found between Interleukin-18 and Interferon Gamma Induced Protein 10kDa levels and C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, procalcitonin, neutrophil/lymphocyte levels. Interleukin-18 and Interferon Gamma Induced Protein 10kDa levels were not found to be associated with mortality.
Conclusion: Interleukin-18 and Interferon Gamma Induced Protein 10kDa levels are not of vital importance in demonstrating disease severity alone. Serial measurements at specific times may better clarify its role in disease outcome. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.
COVID-19, cytokine storm, interleukin-18, inducible protein-10.