Xuebing Lin1, Li Xu2, *


1Department of Psychiatry, Shaoxing 7th people's hospital, Zhejiang Province, China,3 12000 - 2Medical quality management division, Quzhou Third Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China, 324000


Introduction: To investigate the changes of serum inflammatory cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in patients with insomnia combined with depression, and analyze their clinical significance.

Materials and method: One hundred and seventeen patients with insomnia combined with depression admitted to Shaoxing 7th people's hospital, China, from February 2020 to February 2022 were selected depressed group. Another 117 non-depressed patients with insomnia were selected as non-depressed group. According to the clinical efficacy after treatment, the depressed group was divided into effective and ineffective subgroups. Serum levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β, sIL-2R, TNF-α, 5-HT, DA and NE were measured.

Results: Compared with non-depressed group, serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β, sIL-2R and TNF-α levels in depressed group before treatment were higher (all P<0.001); but serum 5-HT, NE and DA levels were the opposite (all P<0.001). Compared with the depressed group before treatment, above serum inflammatory cytokines levels in the depressed group after treatment were lower (all P<0.001), but above serum neurotransmitters levels were the opposite (all P<0.001). Above serum inflammatory cytokines levels in effective subgroup after treatment were lower than in ineffective subgroup (P=0.003, P=0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Above serum neurotransmitters levels in effective subgroup after treatment were higher than in ineffective subgroup (P=0.004, P=0.037 and P<0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: Above serum inflammatory cytokines and neurotransmitters are closely related to the condition of patients with insomnia combined with depression. After treatment the above serum inflammatory cytokine levels are reduced to some extent, while the above neurotransmitter levels are increased to some extent. The above-mentioned inflammatory cytokines and neurotransmitters may be valuable in the diagnosis of insomnia combined with depression and the evaluation of treatment effects.


Insomnia, depression, inflammatory, cytokines, neurotransmitters.