Francesco Fischetti1, Stefania Cataldi1, Valerio Bonavolontà1, Vincenzo Cristian Francavilla2, Pasquale Panessa1, Giuseppe Messina3*


1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, School of Medicine, University of Study of Bari, Italy -  2Faculty of Human and Society Sciences, University of Enna “Kore”, Enna, Italy - 3Posture & Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy


Introduction: The research tested the effects of training in three different load zones. The hypothesis is that this type of training can provide more complete hypertrophic gains compared to workouts performed in a specific, single load area.

Materials and methods: 37 participants were divided into 4 groups (SE; S; E; C). The first group trained simultaneously with high loads and low repetitions and with low loads and high repetitions; the second group trained in the high load condition, the third with low loads and high repetitions brought to the point of fatigue and the last control group had not practiced any type of training. The participants performed the training program 3 times a week for an eight-week period.

Results: The internal group comparison of the 1RM squat values, shows an important mean improvement emerged in the participants of the SE sample, a similar increase was recorded in group S, while in group E there was no increase, but a slight average decrease in the 1RM of squats. In group C the decrease in the 1RM of squats was significant.

Conclusions: Resistance training performed simultaneously in different load areas (SE) optimizes muscle hypertrophy. These data underline both the reactivity of skeletal muscle to mechanical load alterations and the importance of metabolic stress as a necessary factor for increasing muscle volume.


Strength training, resistance training, hypertrophy, metabolic adaptations, neuronal adaptations.