Cristina Gabriela Puscasu*, Elena Dumea**, Lucian Cristian Petcu***
*Ovidius University Constanta Romania, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology - **Ovidius University Constanta Romania, Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Constanta - ***Ovidius University Constanta Romania, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Biostatistics
Introduction and aim: The investigation of potential systemic risk factors, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, for periodontal disease.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional sample consisting of 395 dentate adults (mean age 54 ±13), 55.7% female and 44.3% male, were enrolled in the study. Subjects attended periodontal care between 2016-2017 in Constanța, Romania (participation rate was 82%). The self-reported CVD and diabetes were recorded for the study. Clinical parameters such as periodontal probing depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured in order to assess the periodontal status. For the purpose of this study and in order to correlate the systemic status to the periodontal status, all patients were categorized according to their maximum PPD: either PPD <4 mm (no periodontitis) or PPD ≥4 (periodontitis). The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics software version 20.
Results: Patients with known CVD are more likely to have pockets deeper than 4 mm (periodontitis) OR = 5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.41-10.34. Self-reported diabetes was positively associated with the risk for periodontal disease with pockets deeper than 4 mm OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.18-8.25. No statistically significant relation was found between BOP and the presence of CVD (p=0.09), as well as between BOP and diabetes (p=0.161).
Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease and diabetes act as potential risk factors for periodontal disease, but gingival inflammation assessed by bleeding on probing was not proven to be influenced by CVD or diabetes.
periodontal disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, periodontal pockets, risk factor.