1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran - 2Student Research Committee, Department of pharmacology and toxicology, Faculty of pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran- 3Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran - 4Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran - 5Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran - 6Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran - 7Instructor, M.S.c, Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran 


Heavy metals are unwanted pollutants introduced directly and indirectly into the environment and ecological currents through the discharge of industrial wastewaters. Many of them, like hexavalent chromium, easily enter biological organs resulting in acute toxicity and damage to kidney, liver, and lung due to their maximum oxidation state in comparison with their other compounds. On the other hand, they incur irrecoverable effects on the environment and ecosystems. Accordingly, human beings need processes and technologies to lessen the danger of these pollutants; in order to remove chromium from aquatic environments, various methods including physical, chemical, and biological methods have been important. Among them, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electro dialysis, chemical deposition, and adsorption are popular. In practice, in order to apply each of the mentioned treatment methods, preliminary studies for applicability, the required expertise, and the costs of construction and operation are necessary.


Chromium, Toxicological effects, Environmental effects, Health effects, Removal techniques.