ACTA MEDICA MEDITERRANEA journal is retracting this paper following on concerns raised by the Journal Owner, Mister Carmelo Pennino, the manager of Carbone Editore company. After an internal investigation that involved all Section Editors, the journal owner detected a suspected misconduct in terms of self-citations activity. The link of the retracted article

Agata Maltese1*, Palmira Romano2*, Lucrezia D’Oro3*, Beatrice Gallai4, Rosa Marotta5, Francesco Lavano5, Serena Marianna Lavano5, Gabriele Tripi6,7, Margherita Salerno8


1Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy - 2Centro LARS, Sarno, Italy - 3Centro Relax, Benevento, Italy - 4Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy - 5Department of Medical and Surgery Sciences, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, Italy - 6Department PROSAMI, University of Palermo, Italy - 7Childhood Psychiatric Service for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, CH Chinon, France - 8Sciences for Mother and Child Health Promotion, University of Palermo, Italy


Aggressive behavior is a peculiar characteristic of most animal species playing an important role in species preservation and two types have been identified: interspecific and intraspecific aggression. The interspecific refers purely to the instinct of predation, while the intraspecific is the purpose for species preservation. Anger has been found in very young children between the ages of four and seven, is manifested through vocalizations, expressions and global movements affecting the entire body of the child: it is a means of communication privileged to express themselves and communicate. Anger must be considered a positive event, even if it may frigh- ten it has a positive effect: transforming an event that could only be destructive and useless in a constructive process, and channeling the child's anger toward a specific goal.


anger, children, emotional control, drawings.